General Agriculture By Akhtar Abbas Pdf Free ^HOT^ 137
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General Agriculture By Akhtar Abbas Pdf Free 137
Crop rotation is practiced for rotation between two or more crops or crops and cover crops. When more than one crop is grown on a plot, crop rotation is normally the main way to improve soil fertility, weed control and soil health. Although soil fertility, weed control and soil health has been developed significantly because of crop rotation, it does not necessary mean that it must be practiced. Crop rotation has provided considerable benefits to society and the economy of a given country. It is widely used in agriculture throughout the world. The major advantages of crop rotation are the improvement of soil fertility, weed control and soil health, and prevention of soil erosion. Planting alternate crops every year can reduce soil erosion, protect soil from erosion by wind and water, and improve soil quality (Su 2003 940 ).
Some of them used to have pesticides sprayed over their crops while other were practicing natural farming in hopes of increasing production of organic food. These farmers used to grow the organic food in the paddies.
Recently, a new type of growing method for organic agriculture has become popular because of its success. The method is called Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM). ISFM seeks to create the best combinations of plants, soil, and climate for producing high-quality food and as a way to control pests and diseases (Kloppenburg 2000 1082 ; Stein et al. 2003 1083 ). ISFM, defined as the judicious and sustainable use of available resources to maximize productivity and quality of agricultural products (Helzer and Vetter 1985 1084 ), is practiced by farmers in many parts of the world. For many centuries, the term” organic farming” has been used to describe methods of farming based on careful manipulation of the soil, thereby increasing crop yields and conserving soil and water. This method, however, has recently been redefined as Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), a framework that, in general, is implemented to increase the fertility of the soil, protecting the environment, and enhancing the productivity of agricultural ecosystems (ISFM 1996 1085 ). The farmers can decide whether they want to follow traditional or non-traditional farming practices. Local vegetable farmers in Ghana, for example, use intercropping with banana, citrus, and vegetable crops to get maximum yield from very small patches of land (Carter et al. 2011 1086 ).
The toxic effects of 3-deoxyosone (3-dO) are generally attributed to the formation of HMF and its derivatives, as shown in Fig. 1 [ 13, 15, 60, 61 ]. 3-dO is formed from 3-deoxygluconic acid (3-DGA) by the action of invertase, which is present in the apoplast of plant tissue cells [ 61 ]. The formation of 3-dO and its oxidation to 3-dO-1,2-glycol is reported in the literature. 3-dO can be degraded by oxidative and enzymatic pathways. Once formed in a plant cell, 3-dO is converted into HMF, which is an antimicrobial agent. However, the 3-dO precursor, 3-DGA, may directly induce cellular toxicity and subsequent HMF formation [ 61 ]. On account of the failure of the cooperative, the smallholders turned to alternative sources of funding. However, they were forced to pay Rs 3000 in bribes to the cooperative to guarantee their water supply. When the farmers objected, they were threatened with black market sale of their crop. At this point, the village market committee (VMC), which functions as an intermediary between the smallholders and the cooperative, intervened. They managed to resolve the conflict between the farmers and the cooperative. They urged the cooperative to sell water to the farmers free of charges. The farmers had to pay a similar sum to the VMC, but the latter did not charge the farmers anything. However, they started making money off the farmers and the cooperative. The VMC was not willing to give up any amount of their commission, which amounted to as much as a thousand rupees. For Expt. 1, a total of 250 larvae of H. concinna were collected from a small farm at Rawalpindi, Pakistan in 2013. From each farm, 20 female ticks were held in sterile bottles and reared through five generations. The study was performed in the insectary of the Department of Zoology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The female ticks were placed in separate cages (36 cm×22 cm) containing small pieces of artificial diet (i.e., “sugar food”). Larvae of Haemaphysalis concinna became fully engorged (n=250) and were allowed to drop from the cages and fall into mesh cages containing 20 adult female Rhipicephalus microplus ticks (i.e., “vector” ticks). These cages were placed on a rack at 25±1°C and 80% relative humidity with a 12-h light/dark cycle. 5ec8ef588b